Desalination Plant Basis Of Design

Overview: The project potable water requirements will be provided using single desalination plant with the Grand Bahama Port Authority water supply serving as the backup source. The overall desalination treatment process will consist of feedwater pumping, bag filtration, optional media filtration, the addition of a scale inhibitor, cartridge filtration, membrane separation, forced air degasification, re-pumping, and post treatment. Provisions have been included to bypass the post treatment systems for the production of irrigation water. The post aeration re-pump station will be designed to transfer either type of water to the appropriate storage tanks located within the project. Membrane concentrate will be disposed via an injection well to be constructed as part of this project. The desalination process will consist of a dual treatment units or “trains” each equipped with a positive displacement axial piston first pass membrane feed pump, first pass membrane array, energy recovery system, second pass membrane feed pump, second pass membrane array, high- and low-pressure piping and instrumentation. The second pass system is designed to treat up to 60 percent of the first pass permeate. A membrane cleaning/flush system will be provided. The membrane post treatment will be designed to receive the flow from both units and consists of a forced air degasified, repumping, recarbonation, calcium carbonate up flow contactors to boost finished water hardness and alkalinity concentrations; and three chemical feed systems for the metering of a corrosion inhibitor, dilute hydrochloric acid for pH adjustment and sodium hypochlorite for residual disinfection. The final pH and chlorine residual will be controlled and recorded by a separate system. The following sections describe the various aspects of the facility in greater detail. Process flow schematics are presented in Appendix A.
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Desalination Plant Basis Of Design

Overview: The project potable water requirements will be provided using single desalination plant with the Grand Bahama Port Authority water supply serving as the backup source. The overall desalination treatment process will consist of feedwater pumping, bag filtration, optional media filtration, the addition of a scale inhibitor, cartridge filtration, membrane separation, forced air degasification, re-pumping, and post treatment. Provisions have been included to bypass the post treatment systems for the production of irrigation water. The post aeration re-pump station will be designed to transfer either type of water to the appropriate storage tanks located within the project. Membrane concentrate will be disposed via an injection well to be constructed as part of this project. The desalination process will consist of a dual treatment units or “trains” each equipped with a positive displacement axial piston first pass membrane feed pump, first pass membrane array, energy recovery system, second pass membrane feed pump, second pass membrane array, high- and low-pressure piping and instrumentation. The second pass system is designed to treat up to 60 percent of the first pass permeate. A membrane cleaning/flush system will be provided. The membrane post treatment will be designed to receive the flow from both units and consists of a forced air degasified, repumping, recarbonation, calcium carbonate up flow contactors to boost finished water hardness and alkalinity concentrations; and three chemical feed systems for the metering of a corrosion inhibitor, dilute hydrochloric acid for pH adjustment and sodium hypochlorite for residual disinfection. The final pH and chlorine residual will be controlled and recorded by a separate system. The following sections describe the various aspects of the facility in greater detail. Process flow schematics are presented in Appendix A.

Desalination Needs and Appropriate technology

Abstract This study investigates the desalination needs and available technologies in Sri Lanka. Lack of rainfall, pollution due to agricultural chemicals, presence of fluoride, increasing demand, exploitation of ground water and brackishness have created scarcity of fresh pure water specially in near costal and dry zones in Sri Lanka. Due to Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) around 500 people died in dry zones annually which is suspected to cause by Arsenic and Cadmium contain in ground water due to agriculture chemicals. The available desalination methods are Reverse Osmosis (RO), Solar distillation and conventional methods. The cost for RO is Rs.0.10 cents per liter and solar distillation Rs.2.96 per liter. Although the price shows that the RO is better but due to high initial investment as a third world country it is very difficult to afford huge initial investment without government  intervention. The experimental solar desalination units only produce nearly 5liters of potable water per day and directly impacted by availability of solar radiation. The energy availability of Sri Lanka and future potable water demand predicted as 2188.3 Mn liters as maximum demand which will be in 2030, therefore by that time the government should have a proper plan to cater the demand and desalination plants need to be planned and built based on the demand of dry zones and specially agriculture areas. The applicability of renewable energy for desalination in local arena was also simulated taking the Delft Reverse Osmosis plant for the simulation. Results show that the optimum design is combination of Solar PV and existing 100kW Diesel generator Set with Battery bank and converter.
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Desalination Needs and Appropriate technology

Abstract This study investigates the desalination needs and available technologies in Sri Lanka. Lack of rainfall, pollution due to agricultural chemicals, presence of fluoride, increasing demand, exploitation of ground water and brackishness have created scarcity of fresh pure water specially in near costal and dry zones in Sri Lanka. Due to Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) around 500 people died in dry zones annually which is suspected to cause by Arsenic and Cadmium contain in ground water due to agriculture chemicals. The available desalination methods are Reverse Osmosis (RO), Solar distillation and conventional methods. The cost for RO is Rs.0.10 cents per liter and solar distillation Rs.2.96 per liter. Although the price shows that the RO is better but due to high initial investment as a third world country it is very difficult to afford huge initial investment without government  intervention. The experimental solar desalination units only produce nearly 5liters of potable water per day and directly impacted by availability of solar radiation. The energy availability of Sri Lanka and future potable water demand predicted as 2188.3 Mn liters as maximum demand which will be in 2030, therefore by that time the government should have a proper plan to cater the demand and desalination plants need to be planned and built based on the demand of dry zones and specially agriculture areas. The applicability of renewable energy for desalination in local arena was also simulated taking the Delft Reverse Osmosis plant for the simulation. Results show that the optimum design is combination of Solar PV and existing 100kW Diesel generator Set with Battery bank and converter.

Desalination In Water Treatment And Sustainability

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this Bachelor’s thesis was to introduce different desalination technologies in solving water scarcity in countries where access to safe drinking water is limited, due to increasing population growth, industrial activities and agriculture. This thesis covers and explains different desalination technologies in dealing with water problems in different countries and the best suitable methods. The thesis was commissioned by HAMK University of Applied Sciences. The thesis also focuses on the Economic and Social Commission for West Asia (ESCWA) member countries were access to water is limited due to scanty rainfall and dry lands. Desalination technology has played a significant role in solving their water scarcity in the region leading to sustainable development. A case study of Taweelah power and desalination plant in Abu Dhabi was explained providing detailed information. As a conclusion, it can be stated that desalination in water treatment and sustainability is a significant factor in the world today, because the future of water supply requires adequate sustainability to be able to effectively supply and support the world’s increasing population. For the Taweelah power and desalination plant project, a suitable re-design of the intakes and outfall layout should be adjusted. The outfall can be an offshore pipeline instead of its location onshore.
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Desalination In Water Treatment And Sustainability

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this Bachelor’s thesis was to introduce different desalination technologies in solving water scarcity in countries where access to safe drinking water is limited, due to increasing population growth, industrial activities and agriculture. This thesis covers and explains different desalination technologies in dealing with water problems in different countries and the best suitable methods. The thesis was commissioned by HAMK University of Applied Sciences. The thesis also focuses on the Economic and Social Commission for West Asia (ESCWA) member countries were access to water is limited due to scanty rainfall and dry lands. Desalination technology has played a significant role in solving their water scarcity in the region leading to sustainable development. A case study of Taweelah power and desalination plant in Abu Dhabi was explained providing detailed information. As a conclusion, it can be stated that desalination in water treatment and sustainability is a significant factor in the world today, because the future of water supply requires adequate sustainability to be able to effectively supply and support the world’s increasing population. For the Taweelah power and desalination plant project, a suitable re-design of the intakes and outfall layout should be adjusted. The outfall can be an offshore pipeline instead of its location onshore.
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Desalination: From Ancient To Present And Future

Abstract: Water is life, and without water, there would be no civilizations and a vacant Earth. Water is considered an abundant natural resource on the earth. Water covers 3/4 of the surface. However, 97% of the available water on the earth is salty oceanic water, and only a tiny fraction (3%) is freshwater. This small portion of the available water supplies the needs of humans and animals. However, freshwater exists in underground, rivers, and lakes and is insufficient to cover all the world’s water demands. Thus, water saving, water reuse, rainwater harvesting, stormwater utilization, and desalination are critical for maintaining water supplies for the future of humanity. Desalination has a long history spanning centuries from ancient times to the present. In the last two decades, desalination has been rapidly expanding to meet water needs in stressed water regions of the world. Yet, there are still some problems with its implementation in several areas of the world. This review provides a comprehensive assessment of the history of desalination for wiser and smarter water extraction and uses to sustain and support the water needs of the earth’s inhabitants.
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Desalination: From Ancient To Present And Future

Abstract: Water is life, and without water, there would be no civilizations and a vacant Earth. Water is considered an abundant natural resource on the earth. Water covers 3/4 of the surface. However, 97% of the available water on the earth is salty oceanic water, and only a tiny fraction (3%) is freshwater. This small portion of the available water supplies the needs of humans and animals. However, freshwater exists in underground, rivers, and lakes and is insufficient to cover all the world’s water demands. Thus, water saving, water reuse, rainwater harvesting, stormwater utilization, and desalination are critical for maintaining water supplies for the future of humanity. Desalination has a long history spanning centuries from ancient times to the present. In the last two decades, desalination has been rapidly expanding to meet water needs in stressed water regions of the world. Yet, there are still some problems with its implementation in several areas of the world. This review provides a comprehensive assessment of the history of desalination for wiser and smarter water extraction and uses to sustain and support the water needs of the earth’s inhabitants.
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Desalination For Safe Water Supply

Preface: Access to sufficient quantities of safe water for drinking and domestic uses and also for commercial and industrial applications is critical to health and well being, and the opportunity to achieve human and economic development. People in many areas of the world have historically suffered from inadequate access to safe water. Some must walk long distances just to obtain sufficient water to sustain life. As a result they have had to endure health consequences and have not had the opportunity to develop their resources and capabilities to achieve major improvements in their well being. With growth of world population the availability of the limited quantities of fresh water decreases. Desalination technologies were introduced about 50 years ago at and were able to expand access to water, but at high cost. Developments of new and improved technologies have now significantly broadened the opportunities to access major quantities of safe water in many parts of the world. Costs are still significant but there has been a reducing cost trend, and the option is much more widely available. When the alternative is no water or inadequate water greater cost may be endurable in many circumstances.
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Desalination For Safe Water Supply

Preface: Access to sufficient quantities of safe water for drinking and domestic uses and also for commercial and industrial applications is critical to health and well being, and the opportunity to achieve human and economic development. People in many areas of the world have historically suffered from inadequate access to safe water. Some must walk long distances just to obtain sufficient water to sustain life. As a result they have had to endure health consequences and have not had the opportunity to develop their resources and capabilities to achieve major improvements in their well being. With growth of world population the availability of the limited quantities of fresh water decreases. Desalination technologies were introduced about 50 years ago at and were able to expand access to water, but at high cost. Developments of new and improved technologies have now significantly broadened the opportunities to access major quantities of safe water in many parts of the world. Costs are still significant but there has been a reducing cost trend, and the option is much more widely available. When the alternative is no water or inadequate water greater cost may be endurable in many circumstances.

Desalination At A Glance

Introduction: By desalination, we will be referring to the production of a useful product water from a feed water that is too high in inorganic materials (salts) to be useful. The feed water may be seawater, brackish water, or other “impaired” water that cannot be used directly for potable or general industrial purposes. Notice that this definition includes the treatment of certain wastewaters for subsequent reuse. The principal technologies used in desalination are based on concepts that are fairly easy to grasp by those with a modest amount of scientific training and/or technical experience. In practice, however, choices of technology and plant design are usually determined by factors that might appear minor to the inexperienced. Similarly, new technologies that show great promise in the laboratory frequently fail for reasons that were earlier overlooked or dismissed as trivial. Indeed, professional fascination with specific technical elegance has, in some cases, led researchers to remain oblivious to inherent limitations of a process. Nonetheless, attention to detail over the past five decades has resulted in dramatic reductions in capital and operating costs as well as greatly increased plant reliability and performance
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Desalination At A Glance

Introduction: By desalination, we will be referring to the production of a useful product water from a feed water that is too high in inorganic materials (salts) to be useful. The feed water may be seawater, brackish water, or other “impaired” water that cannot be used directly for potable or general industrial purposes. Notice that this definition includes the treatment of certain wastewaters for subsequent reuse. The principal technologies used in desalination are based on concepts that are fairly easy to grasp by those with a modest amount of scientific training and/or technical experience. In practice, however, choices of technology and plant design are usually determined by factors that might appear minor to the inexperienced. Similarly, new technologies that show great promise in the laboratory frequently fail for reasons that were earlier overlooked or dismissed as trivial. Indeed, professional fascination with specific technical elegance has, in some cases, led researchers to remain oblivious to inherent limitations of a process. Nonetheless, attention to detail over the past five decades has resulted in dramatic reductions in capital and operating costs as well as greatly increased plant reliability and performance
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