Read moreView cart

A Review of the Water Desalination Technologies

Abstract: Desalination is commonly adopted nowadays to overcome the freshwater scarcity in some areas of the world if brackish water or salt water is available. Different kinds of technologies have been proposed in the last century. In this paper, the state of the mainstream solutions is reported, showing the current commercial technologies like reverse osmosis (RO), Multi-Stages Flash desalination (MSF) and Multi-Effect Distillation (MED), and the new frontiers of the research with the aim of exploiting renewable sources such as wind, solar and biomass energy. In these cases, seawater treatment plants are the same as traditional ones, with the only difference being that they use a renewable energy source. Thus, classifications are firstly introduced, considering the working principles, the main energy input required for the treatment, and the potential for coupling with renewable energy sources. Each technology is described in detail, showing how the process works and reporting some data on the state of development. Finally, a statistical analysis is given concerning the spread of the various technologies across the world and which of them are most exploited. In this section, an important energy and exergy analysis is also addressed to quantify energy losses.
Quick View

A Review of the Water Desalination Technologies

Abstract: Desalination is commonly adopted nowadays to overcome the freshwater scarcity in some areas of the world if brackish water or salt water is available. Different kinds of technologies have been proposed in the last century. In this paper, the state of the mainstream solutions is reported, showing the current commercial technologies like reverse osmosis (RO), Multi-Stages Flash desalination (MSF) and Multi-Effect Distillation (MED), and the new frontiers of the research with the aim of exploiting renewable sources such as wind, solar and biomass energy. In these cases, seawater treatment plants are the same as traditional ones, with the only difference being that they use a renewable energy source. Thus, classifications are firstly introduced, considering the working principles, the main energy input required for the treatment, and the potential for coupling with renewable energy sources. Each technology is described in detail, showing how the process works and reporting some data on the state of development. Finally, a statistical analysis is given concerning the spread of the various technologies across the world and which of them are most exploited. In this section, an important energy and exergy analysis is also addressed to quantify energy losses.
Read moreView cart

A Primer On Brackish And Seawater Desalination

Abstract: This publication was produced as an activity of the Texas Living Waters Project. This project is a collaborative effort of the National Wildlife Federation, Environmental Defense, and the Lone Star Chapter of the Sierra Club. The goals of the project are to 1) ensure adequate water for people and environmental needs, 2) reduce future demand for water and foster efficient and sustainable use of current water supplies, 3) educate the public and decision makers about the impact of wasteful water use and the opportunities for water conservation, and 4) involve citizens in the decision making process for water management.
Quick View

A Primer On Brackish And Seawater Desalination

Abstract: This publication was produced as an activity of the Texas Living Waters Project. This project is a collaborative effort of the National Wildlife Federation, Environmental Defense, and the Lone Star Chapter of the Sierra Club. The goals of the project are to 1) ensure adequate water for people and environmental needs, 2) reduce future demand for water and foster efficient and sustainable use of current water supplies, 3) educate the public and decision makers about the impact of wasteful water use and the opportunities for water conservation, and 4) involve citizens in the decision making process for water management.
Read moreView cart

A Pilot Study of an Electromagnetic Field for Control of Reverse Osmosis Membrane Fouling and Scaling During Brackish Groundwater Desalination

Abstract: This study investigated the effects of an electromagnetic field (EMF) on control of membrane fouling and scaling during desalination of brackish groundwater using a pilot reverse osmosis (RO) skid. The groundwater was primarily CaSO4 type with a total dissolved solids concentration of 5850 mg/L and hardness of 2500 mg/L as CaCO3. Two EMF devices were installed in the pipeline before a cartridge filter and in the RO feed inlet to induce an electric signal of ±150 kHz to the groundwater. The effects of EMF on membrane scaling were evaluated under accelerated conditions, i.e., without pH adjustment and addition of antiscalant. Two-phase experiments were conducted: Phase 1 (376 h) with the EMF devices turned on after 150 h baseline operation; and Phase 2 (753 h) with the EMF devices turned on from the beginning of testing. The EMF significantly reduced membrane scaling and improved RO performance by 38.3% and 14.3% in terms of normalized water permeability decline rate after 150 h and 370 h operation, respectively. Membrane autopsy results indicated that the fouling layer formed under the influence of EMF was loose with a low density and was easily removed by hydraulic flushing
Quick View

A Pilot Study of an Electromagnetic Field for Control of Reverse Osmosis Membrane Fouling and Scaling During Brackish Groundwater Desalination

Abstract: This study investigated the effects of an electromagnetic field (EMF) on control of membrane fouling and scaling during desalination of brackish groundwater using a pilot reverse osmosis (RO) skid. The groundwater was primarily CaSO4 type with a total dissolved solids concentration of 5850 mg/L and hardness of 2500 mg/L as CaCO3. Two EMF devices were installed in the pipeline before a cartridge filter and in the RO feed inlet to induce an electric signal of ±150 kHz to the groundwater. The effects of EMF on membrane scaling were evaluated under accelerated conditions, i.e., without pH adjustment and addition of antiscalant. Two-phase experiments were conducted: Phase 1 (376 h) with the EMF devices turned on after 150 h baseline operation; and Phase 2 (753 h) with the EMF devices turned on from the beginning of testing. The EMF significantly reduced membrane scaling and improved RO performance by 38.3% and 14.3% in terms of normalized water permeability decline rate after 150 h and 370 h operation, respectively. Membrane autopsy results indicated that the fouling layer formed under the influence of EMF was loose with a low density and was easily removed by hydraulic flushing
Read moreView cart

Industrial Pretreatment Programs

Pretreatment is the reduction of the amount of pollutants, the elimination of pollutants, or the alteration of the nature of pollutant properties in wastewater prior to, or in leu of, discharging or otherwise introducing such pollutants into a POTW. The reduction or alteration may be obtained by physical, chemical or biological processes, process changes or by other means, except as prohibited by 40 CFR 403.6(d)
Quick View

Industrial Pretreatment Programs

Pretreatment is the reduction of the amount of pollutants, the elimination of pollutants, or the alteration of the nature of pollutant properties in wastewater prior to, or in leu of, discharging or otherwise introducing such pollutants into a POTW. The reduction or alteration may be obtained by physical, chemical or biological processes, process changes or by other means, except as prohibited by 40 CFR 403.6(d)

A Ground-Breaking Innovation In Wastewater Treatment

The fashion industry contributes 20% of industrial water pollution  With a high water footprint, massive chemical use and atmospheric, water and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, dyehouse operations are the most environmentally damaging component of the apparel supply chain2.Global brands are responding by requiring manufacturers to treat wastewater and reduce effluent. Paradoxically, conventional water treatment systems generate toxic sludge, trading water pollution for solid, chemical discharge that is landfilled and emits GHG – mostly methane.
Quick View

A Ground-Breaking Innovation In Wastewater Treatment

The fashion industry contributes 20% of industrial water pollution  With a high water footprint, massive chemical use and atmospheric, water and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, dyehouse operations are the most environmentally damaging component of the apparel supply chain2.Global brands are responding by requiring manufacturers to treat wastewater and reduce effluent. Paradoxically, conventional water treatment systems generate toxic sludge, trading water pollution for solid, chemical discharge that is landfilled and emits GHG – mostly methane.

Small Wastewater Treatment Works DPW Design Guidelines

This document’s purpose is to direct the design process for designing the best and most Appropriate wastewater process for effluent which is generated by small scale on site operations, Up to 100 m3/day such as police stations, border posts, DOJ etc. Larger plants are also addressed To some extent. In this manual, the best appropriate process for such small waste water treatment Plants has already been identified as the Rotating Biological Contactors (biodiscs) systems and Biological trickling filters (biofiters) for larger quantities. Consultants designing such plants for The DPW need to take cognizance of all the criteria set out herein and must ensure that apart from That the best available practices as regards such processes are incorporated into the design. The Designers of such plants are however still to consider other alternatives if the circumstances so Dictate.
Small Wastewater Treatment Works DPW Design GuidelinesSmall Wastewater Treatment Works DPW Design Guidelines
Quick View

Small Wastewater Treatment Works DPW Design Guidelines

This document’s purpose is to direct the design process for designing the best and most Appropriate wastewater process for effluent which is generated by small scale on site operations, Up to 100 m3/day such as police stations, border posts, DOJ etc. Larger plants are also addressed To some extent. In this manual, the best appropriate process for such small waste water treatment Plants has already been identified as the Rotating Biological Contactors (biodiscs) systems and Biological trickling filters (biofiters) for larger quantities. Consultants designing such plants for The DPW need to take cognizance of all the criteria set out herein and must ensure that apart from That the best available practices as regards such processes are incorporated into the design. The Designers of such plants are however still to consider other alternatives if the circumstances so Dictate.

Boron Rejection by Reverse Osmosis Membranes – National Reconnaissance and Mechanism Study

Introduction The mechanism of boron rejection by reverse osmosis membrane and transport was studied by bench experiments using six commercial reverse osmosis membranes. A mathematical model was developed to predict boron rejection by reverse osmosis membranes under different operating conditions such as pressure, pH, and temperature. Boron concentrations in feed and product water from nine pilot or full-scale plants were analyzed in parallel. Comparison with bench-scale data suggested that the level is much lower than the boron rejection observed in the field data, mainly due to the high target recovery rate.
Quick View

Boron Rejection by Reverse Osmosis Membranes – National Reconnaissance and Mechanism Study

Introduction The mechanism of boron rejection by reverse osmosis membrane and transport was studied by bench experiments using six commercial reverse osmosis membranes. A mathematical model was developed to predict boron rejection by reverse osmosis membranes under different operating conditions such as pressure, pH, and temperature. Boron concentrations in feed and product water from nine pilot or full-scale plants were analyzed in parallel. Comparison with bench-scale data suggested that the level is much lower than the boron rejection observed in the field data, mainly due to the high target recovery rate.
Newsletter
Stay up to date with our latest news and articles.
Your email is safe with us, we don`t spam.
Newsletter
Stay up to date with our latest news and articles.
Your email is safe with us, we don`t spam.
    0
    Your Cart
    Your cart is emptyReturn to Shop
    ×