Desalination As An Alternative To Alleviate Water Scarcity And a Climate Change Adaptation Option In The MENA Region

This report has been prepared by Dr. Jauad El Kharraz at MEDRC with the support of Eng. Ayisha Al-Hinaai, Eng. Riadh Dridi, Ms. Elsa Andrews, Ms. Jackie Allison, and Eng. Georges Geha. This study was peer reviewed by three international experts. We would like to thank them for their reviewing work
Desalination As An Alternative To Alleviate Water Scarcity And a Climate Change Adaptation Option In The MENA Region
Quick View

Desalination As An Alternative To Alleviate Water Scarcity And a Climate Change Adaptation Option In The MENA Region

This report has been prepared by Dr. Jauad El Kharraz at MEDRC with the support of Eng. Ayisha Al-Hinaai, Eng. Riadh Dridi, Ms. Elsa Andrews, Ms. Jackie Allison, and Eng. Georges Geha. This study was peer reviewed by three international experts. We would like to thank them for their reviewing work

Desalination and Water Treatment

Abstract: This study proposes a simple design method of the Reverse osmosis (RO) system in RO brackish water desalination plants. This method is based on the application of maximum available recovery without scaling of any of the compounds present in the water as silica, calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, barium sulfate, strontium sulfate, and calcium fluoride, and membrane manufacturer design guidelines, and the plant production. Although the method was originally conceived for application to subterranean brackish waters in the Canary Islands, Spain (principally Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura and Tenerife), it can be extrapolated to other types of region and water treatable with RO systems. The required input data are the chemical composition of the feed water, pH, temperature, silt density index membrane manufacturer design guidelines, and the plant production. The programmed method then determines the design of the RO system. The method whose procedure is described graphically and analytically can be used as an aid in design optimization of RO brackish water desalination plants with acid-free pretreatment processes and only the use of scale inhibitor using spiral wound membranes. Practical applications are presented. The final results for different types of feed water and capacities are showed.
Quick View

Desalination and Water Treatment

Abstract: This study proposes a simple design method of the Reverse osmosis (RO) system in RO brackish water desalination plants. This method is based on the application of maximum available recovery without scaling of any of the compounds present in the water as silica, calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, barium sulfate, strontium sulfate, and calcium fluoride, and membrane manufacturer design guidelines, and the plant production. Although the method was originally conceived for application to subterranean brackish waters in the Canary Islands, Spain (principally Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura and Tenerife), it can be extrapolated to other types of region and water treatable with RO systems. The required input data are the chemical composition of the feed water, pH, temperature, silt density index membrane manufacturer design guidelines, and the plant production. The programmed method then determines the design of the RO system. The method whose procedure is described graphically and analytically can be used as an aid in design optimization of RO brackish water desalination plants with acid-free pretreatment processes and only the use of scale inhibitor using spiral wound membranes. Practical applications are presented. The final results for different types of feed water and capacities are showed.

Desalination and Membrane Technologies: Federal Research and Adoption Issues

In the United States, desalination and membrane technologies are used to augment municipal water supply, produce high-quality industrial water supplies, and reclaim contaminated supplies (including from oil and gas development). Approximately 2,000 desalination facilities larger than 0.3 million gallons per day (MGD) operate in the United States; this represents more than 2% of U.S. municipal and industrial freshwater use. At issue for Congress is what should be the federal role in supporting desalination and membrane technology research and facilities. Desalination issues before the 114th Congress may include how to focus federal research, at what level to support desalination research and projects, and how to provide a regulatory context that protects the environment and public health without disadvantaging desalination’s adoption.
Quick View

Desalination and Membrane Technologies: Federal Research and Adoption Issues

In the United States, desalination and membrane technologies are used to augment municipal water supply, produce high-quality industrial water supplies, and reclaim contaminated supplies (including from oil and gas development). Approximately 2,000 desalination facilities larger than 0.3 million gallons per day (MGD) operate in the United States; this represents more than 2% of U.S. municipal and industrial freshwater use. At issue for Congress is what should be the federal role in supporting desalination and membrane technology research and facilities. Desalination issues before the 114th Congress may include how to focus federal research, at what level to support desalination research and projects, and how to provide a regulatory context that protects the environment and public health without disadvantaging desalination’s adoption.

Desalination: A National Perspective

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the panel responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. Support for this study was provided by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation under Grant No. 06CS811198. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.
Quick View

Desalination: A National Perspective

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the panel responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. Support for this study was provided by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation under Grant No. 06CS811198. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

Desalination & Water Purification Technologies

Introduction:  The world’s water consumption rate is doubling every 20 years, outpacing by two times the rate of population growth. The availability of good quality water is on the decline and water demand is on the rise. Worldwide availability of fresh water for industrial needs and human consumption is limited. Various industrial and developmental activities in recent times have resulted in increasing the pollution level and deteriorating the water quality. Water shortages and unreliable water quality are considered major obstacles to achieve sustainable development and improvement in the quality of life. The water demand in the country is increasing fast due to progressive increase in the demand of water for irrigation, rapid industrialization, and population growth and improving life standards. The existing water resources are diminishing (i) due to unequal distribution of rain water and occasional drought, (ii) excessive exploitation of ground water sources and its insufficient recharge, (iii) deterioration of water quality due to the discharge of domestic and industrial effluents without adequate treatment. This is resulting into water stress/ scarcity. Country is currently passing through social and economic transition. The proportion of the population which is urban has doubled over the last thirty years (and is now about 30%), agriculture now accounts for about 25% of GDP and the economy has been growing at around 7-9% a year. Country has a highly seasonal pattern of rainfall, with 50% of precipitation falling in just 15 days and over 90% of river flows in just four months
Quick View

Desalination & Water Purification Technologies

Introduction:  The world’s water consumption rate is doubling every 20 years, outpacing by two times the rate of population growth. The availability of good quality water is on the decline and water demand is on the rise. Worldwide availability of fresh water for industrial needs and human consumption is limited. Various industrial and developmental activities in recent times have resulted in increasing the pollution level and deteriorating the water quality. Water shortages and unreliable water quality are considered major obstacles to achieve sustainable development and improvement in the quality of life. The water demand in the country is increasing fast due to progressive increase in the demand of water for irrigation, rapid industrialization, and population growth and improving life standards. The existing water resources are diminishing (i) due to unequal distribution of rain water and occasional drought, (ii) excessive exploitation of ground water sources and its insufficient recharge, (iii) deterioration of water quality due to the discharge of domestic and industrial effluents without adequate treatment. This is resulting into water stress/ scarcity. Country is currently passing through social and economic transition. The proportion of the population which is urban has doubled over the last thirty years (and is now about 30%), agriculture now accounts for about 25% of GDP and the economy has been growing at around 7-9% a year. Country has a highly seasonal pattern of rainfall, with 50% of precipitation falling in just 15 days and over 90% of river flows in just four months

Database Of Permitting Practices For Seawater Desalination Concentrate

Abstract: The purpose of this research project was to identify the discharge information that permitting agencies need and the decision-making process they go through to permit discharge methods in order to help desalination project proponents focus and expedite their permitting efforts. The project documented seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) discharge regulatory issues and provided a critical overview of facility discharge-related information required for permitting desalination projects in the United States and selected countries with advanced environmental regulations and experience in implementing seawater desalination projects. Information was gathered from the three key U.S. states (California, Florida, Texas) where interest in SWRO desalination has been highest. Due to the more extensive international experience with SWRO desalination, information was also obtained from the countries of Australia, Israel, and Spain – all countries of significant recent large-scale SWRO desalination projects. Case studies of 11 SWRO plants and analysis of regulatory systems and permitting processes supported detailed definition of the decision-making process to set discharge permit limits, as well as defining environmental and other regulatory issues associated with concentrate regulation.
Quick View

Database Of Permitting Practices For Seawater Desalination Concentrate

Abstract: The purpose of this research project was to identify the discharge information that permitting agencies need and the decision-making process they go through to permit discharge methods in order to help desalination project proponents focus and expedite their permitting efforts. The project documented seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) discharge regulatory issues and provided a critical overview of facility discharge-related information required for permitting desalination projects in the United States and selected countries with advanced environmental regulations and experience in implementing seawater desalination projects. Information was gathered from the three key U.S. states (California, Florida, Texas) where interest in SWRO desalination has been highest. Due to the more extensive international experience with SWRO desalination, information was also obtained from the countries of Australia, Israel, and Spain – all countries of significant recent large-scale SWRO desalination projects. Case studies of 11 SWRO plants and analysis of regulatory systems and permitting processes supported detailed definition of the decision-making process to set discharge permit limits, as well as defining environmental and other regulatory issues associated with concentrate regulation.

Concentrating Solar Power For Seawater Desalination

Introduction: The general perception of “solar desalination” today comprises only small scale technologies for decentralized water supply in remote places, which may be quite important for the development of rural areas, but do not address the increasing water deficits of the quickly growing urban centers of demand. Conventional large scale desalination is perceived as expensive, energy consuming and limited to rich countries like those of the Arabian Gulf, especially in view of the quickly escalating cost of fossil fuels like oil, natural gas and coal. The environmental impacts of large scale desalination due to airborne emissions of pollutants from energy consumption and to the discharge of brine and chemical additives to the sea are increasingly considered as critical. For those reasons, most contemporary strategies against a “Global Water Crisis” consider seawater desalination only as a marginal element of supply. The focus of most recommendations lies on more efficient use of water, better accountability, re-use of waste water, enhanced distribution and advanced irrigation systems. To this adds the recommendation to reduce agriculture and rather import food from other places. On the other hand, most sources that do recommend seawater desalination as part of a solution to the water crisis usually propose nuclear fission and fusion as indispensable option.
Quick View

Concentrating Solar Power For Seawater Desalination

Introduction: The general perception of “solar desalination” today comprises only small scale technologies for decentralized water supply in remote places, which may be quite important for the development of rural areas, but do not address the increasing water deficits of the quickly growing urban centers of demand. Conventional large scale desalination is perceived as expensive, energy consuming and limited to rich countries like those of the Arabian Gulf, especially in view of the quickly escalating cost of fossil fuels like oil, natural gas and coal. The environmental impacts of large scale desalination due to airborne emissions of pollutants from energy consumption and to the discharge of brine and chemical additives to the sea are increasingly considered as critical. For those reasons, most contemporary strategies against a “Global Water Crisis” consider seawater desalination only as a marginal element of supply. The focus of most recommendations lies on more efficient use of water, better accountability, re-use of waste water, enhanced distribution and advanced irrigation systems. To this adds the recommendation to reduce agriculture and rather import food from other places. On the other hand, most sources that do recommend seawater desalination as part of a solution to the water crisis usually propose nuclear fission and fusion as indispensable option.

Cleaning Your RO

Eventually the day comes when your RO system will require cleaning. Cleaning is recommended when your RO shows evidence of fouling, just prior to a long term shutdown, or as a matter of scheduled routine maintenance. Fouling characteristics that signal you need to clean are a 10-15% decrease in normalized permeate flow, a 10-15% decrease in normalized permeate quality, or a 10-15% increase in normalized pressure drop as measured between the feed and concentrate headers
Quick View

Cleaning Your RO

Eventually the day comes when your RO system will require cleaning. Cleaning is recommended when your RO shows evidence of fouling, just prior to a long term shutdown, or as a matter of scheduled routine maintenance. Fouling characteristics that signal you need to clean are a 10-15% decrease in normalized permeate flow, a 10-15% decrease in normalized permeate quality, or a 10-15% increase in normalized pressure drop as measured between the feed and concentrate headers
Newsletter
Stay up to date with our latest news and articles.
Your email is safe with us, we don`t spam.
Newsletter
Stay up to date with our latest news and articles.
Your email is safe with us, we don`t spam.
    0
    Your Cart
    Your cart is emptyReturn to Shop
    ×